Automated finite element mesh refinement and remeshing capabilities, which readily identify areas of high stress concentration and high strain gradients and allow crack propagation characteristics to be predicted should be developed and incorporated to the point of being standard features of structural analysis. Higher bypass fans will operate at lower speeds and may need to be coupled to the low-pressure turbine through a gearbox. Engineering design and damage evaluation – repair criteria for aircraft structures are location dependent depending on whether the structure is considered and classified as either Primary, Secondary or as a PSE (Principal Structural Element). Thus, the materials technology program required to meet HSCT requirements should focus on PMC, advanced titanium alloys, and the development of cost-efficient design concepts for titanium and hybrid laminates. Powder metallurgy technology is another area in which continued research efforts are warranted. The nation's materials and structures research program should have components considering how to cause structural, dynamics, materials, control systems, and manufacturing engineers to join in simultaneous consideration of structural, materials, and fabrication technology developments at the earliest design stages. This will require analytical methods for predicting noise generation and propagation characteristics reliably, as well as research on human reaction to noise, including sonic boom. Whereas the more revolutionary concepts should be taken to the proof-of-concept stage in laboratory research, composite material developments per se have outdistanced current abilities to routinely design and manufacture useful parts from them. Without this first step, assessing the residual life of such structures will not be possible. It is an important factor in community acceptance. CMCs offer the high-temperature performance of monolithic ceramics with improved toughness and reliability. Specific materials and structures needs are identified by component in the following sections. Particular attention should be given to improving the understanding of failure modes in composites, increasing their damage tolerance, and advancing means of nondestructive evaluation. One type is the alpha (α) helix structure.This structure resembles a coiled spring and is secured by hydrogen bonding in the polypeptide chain. NASA's research efforts in structural analysis and design should focus on improving stress and deflection analysis methods; establishing proven structural dynamics and aeroelastic analyses; developing improved life prediction techniques and damage-tolerant design concepts; formulating proven methodologies for optimizing structural designs, including tailored composites; and exploiting adaptive or ''smart structures'' concepts. At higher Mach numbers, materials with a 300–350°F temperature capability are required. Learn how your comment data is processed. For example, the residual strength capability of a fuselage lap splice with singular damage in it will be degraded if there is Not Accepted LDC, as defined in Appendix 2, is an inherent aspect of many type designs. For CMCs in which the matrix modulus is high relative to the fiber. Community action barriers to the needed growth of the airline transport system are likely to be based primarily on the environmental noise generated by large, subsonic commercial transport aircraft in the vicinity of airports. Much of technology development involving new structural concepts is applicable to both subsonic and supersonic designs, but the research program should be balanced to ensure that materials and manufacturing process development will include those compatible with the more extreme requirements of the HSCT. This can best be. They vary Rotor noise has low-frequency components that are both distinctive and penetrating. Damage tolerant structure. used on aircraft honeycomb structures and of additional sealing methods is necessary to identify and substantiate the best sealing method for any application. Research in these areas, however, should be a continuing part of NASA's base program. Ready to take your reading offline? Commercial transport aircraft can be in revenue service well beyond 20 years, and the manufacturer must be concerned about safe operation. ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one. Alternate rotor hub designs taking full advantage of composites technology for tiltrotors and helicopters promise to significantly reduce drag and weight and improve rotorcraft reliability and maintenance. Frames were placed only where major loads entered the structure, resulting in frame spacings up to 6 feet. Superplastic forming of metallic parts is considered nonclassical in this context and raises its own challenges. Loadunknowns involve both methods of calculation and type of serviceactually experienced.Primary structure for present transport aircraft is designed, basedon average expected operational conditions and average fatigue testresults, for 120,000 hrs. The need to incorporate noise suppression treatment in these structures will continue in the future. In addition to materials with higher-temperature capability, structural concepts must be developed that avoid high thermally induced strains at points of attachment. All others are of foreign design and manufacture. Other areas of concern include improving oxidation resistance, ensuring compatibility of the fiber/matrix interface, and developing CMC fabrication technology. Automated lamina placement for buildup of fuselage skins will significantly reduce costs, compared to hand lay-up, whether it be in tape or tow form. In addition to research supporting composite airframe structure technology development, research is needed in selected areas for metallic airframe structures. View our suggested citation for this chapter. Secondary Structure refers to the coiling or folding of a polypeptide chain that gives the protein its 3-D shape.There are two types of secondary structures observed in proteins. The metal blades had aluminum honeycomb structure aft of the spar, and the composite blades had NOMEX® honeycomb in the same application. The alternative could be an unacceptable delay in the certification procedure. Aircraft Structure Chapter 2. the best results. These aircraft with wet wings are not required by crashworthiness criteria to use elastomeric tank liners, as many VTOL aircraft are. This technology began, in one sense, with the so-called control-configured vehicle concept and has grown to include compliant materials and structures combined with embedded sensor/processor/actuator systems. A necessary component for composites research, particularly, should be environmental aspects (e.g., moisture and thermal effects) and the means to ensure safety and long-term integrity in their presence. Boeing helicopter operational experience with composite honeycomb rotor blade structures on U.S. Army aircraft has been excellent. Improved structural analysis methods capable of exploiting the computational power that will be available in the near future should be a high-priority objective of structural design research. By way of comparison, the cost of an aluminum fuselage structure would be 22 man-hours per pound on a comparable basis (i.e., for the first prototype in both cases). This information is typically in ATA chapter 51. Thus, such programs can proceed immediately. Hybrid materials such as those having combinations of glass and graphite reinforcements show significant improvement in tensile fracture properties versus solely graphite-reinforced laminates. Thus, an appropriate fundamental program of materials and structures research should seek to provide both evolutionary and revolutionary advances in materials and structures, which will be required to sustain a leadership role in both airframe and propulsion technologies. This background of good experience accumulated by Boeing Helicopters and others with composite honeycomb sandwich structures is still apparently unable to overcome resistance to its widespread use on the part of a large segment of the industry. Currently, most manufactured aircraft have wing spars made of solid extruded aluminum or aluminum extrusions riveted together to form the spar. Although sensitivity and reliability of crack detection need an order-of-magnitude improvement, both NDE and the damage tolerance of materials and their applications must be advanced before efficient damage-tolerant design concepts can become routine for airframes and the critical rotating parts of turbine engines. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Adaptive structures is a relatively recent concept that offers potentially important benefits in aircraft design. This includes sensors, sensor placement tailored to the structure, and automated scanning and interpretation of results. The weight savings possible with composite structural materials are limited by inspection capabilities and damage design criteria. manufacturing process development and the development of maintenance procedures will be crucial to the successful incorporation of composites. Carbon-carbon composites have high specific strength and stiffness and adequate temperature capability, but exhibit poor oxidation resistance uncoated. Technology advances in materials and structures applicable to commercial transport are, for the most part, transferable to other subsonic aircraft systems. Lower structural weight fraction and lower costs are high-payoff aspects of advanced subsonic airframe structures. The ultimate goal of such programs should be the continuous monitoring of structures for applied loads and damage growth and associated evaluation of residual load-carrying capability. Although fracture mechanics technology has existed for years, continued advances in understanding and capability are needed, including the ability to analyze the stress field in, and resultant fracture of, structures with multiple-site damage. For instance, a "number one" composite helicopter rotor blade required approximately 15 man-hours per pound with hand lay-up. To bring this about, it will be necessary to create a technology base to improve ceramic and CMC material reliability and producibility, while developing the concomitant design methodologies and life prediction systems. Applied research in structures and materials is virtually always required at some level in developing a new type of advanced aircraft. The term “stress” is often used interchangeably with the word “strain.” The degree of deformation of a material is strain. They include higher specific (relative to material mass density) strength, and stiffness, and better fatigue and fracture resistance compared to metallic alloys. This has many variations that can contain metals and glass fibers in addition to carbon fiber. The need for structural research to achieve these low-cost structures is common to the activities identified for all subsonic aircraft fuselage and wing structures. Repair techniques for metallic aircraft structures are well developed, but techniques to decrease the costs of such repairs are desirable. Use our Career Test Report to get your career on track and keep it there. By their nature, these low-noise exhaust nozzles are large, mechanically complex structures running at elevated temperature, with large gas flows and pressure gradients. Experience with optimization methods to date indicates that the state of these procedures requires fundamental research and that successful application can establish major competitive advantage in the marketplace. Aircraft structural members are designed to carry a load or to resist stress. Advanced joining techniques should be exploited to eliminate conventional but inefficient dovetail attachments and to exploit more fully the capabilities of advanced blade and disk materials. Wings will most likely have integrally stiffened composite skins as has been done with the A-6, AV-8B, and V-22 airplanes, because of the high load intensity and stiffness needed in most wing structures. The highly coupled behavior of the tiltrotor aircraft's rotor and the flexible wing on which it is mounted calls for active control applications to suppress whirl flutter. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. B. Fail-safe structure. Formalized structural optimization techniques must become a standard computational tool for design purposes. Disks and/or drums make up a major portion of high-pressure compressor weight. Titanium alloys are available that would meet all technical requirements, but considerable effort must be expended in research and development to further improve their engineering properties and reduce fabrication costs. Structures research should take a strong lead in integrating these technical areas to achieve more efficient designs. The introduction of metal matrix composites into high-pressure compressor disks deserves major emphasis in NASA's engine programs for the nearer term. High-conductivity, high-strength silicon carbide and silicon nitride composite systems have the potential to meet current projected combustor material requirements. The approach employed is likely to depend on the application. Stochastic analysis methods should also receive greater attention to account for more complex operational aspects of advanced aircraft systems. Such techniques should also allow for choice among multiple static and dynamic analysis options (e.g., transfer matrix, finite element, and boundary integral methods) in unified procedures that ensure the balance between efficiency and accuracy at various design stages, which is requisite for application of these analyses to realistic designs. For thermoplastic resins, both temperatures high enough to make them flow and molds are necessary in some instances; hot gas torches and filament winding are sufficient in others. Emphasis should be on increasing fundamental understanding of the structure-property relations in these systems and on alloy additions to enhance strength and toughness. Primary structures such as the belly fairing, an extremely complex assembly which forms the aerodynamic transition covering from the wings to the body. Airframe durability is a systems issue focusing on economic factors. Nondestructive inspection techniques for laminated composite structures are not well developed in comparison to those for metallic structures. In single engine aircraft, it also houses the powerplant. Currently, polymer matrix composite (PMC) materials have advanced to the point of wide use for fairings and doors, and limited applications in empennage and control surfaces on transport aircraft. Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window), Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window), Living in the age of Airplanes – National Geographic, SROV – Service Ready Operational Validation. Of major importance is the availability to manufacturers of the acoustical information needed to make appropriate design choices, and the methodologies and data bases required to substantiate predicted levels to the regulatory authorities and to the communities affected. Such "concurrent engineering" seems essential to achieving the successful application of advanced materials to aircraft structures in the time period of interest in this study. The gradual dominance of aluminum as an aircraft material was seen by aluminum manufacturers as only one of a great many potential uses, which included large-scale consumer product manufacturers. PMC technology development should include high-temperature thermosetting and thermoplastic matrix resins. The progressive substitution of ceramics and CMCs for metals in the hot section of aircraft engines could begin late in the 1990s and continue for the next few decades. No plywood-skin fuselage is truly monocoque, since stiffening elements are incorporated into the structure to carry concentrated loads that would otherwise buckle the thin skin. The fuselage is the main structure or body of the aircraft. Manufacturing economics is one of the serious roadblocks to the use of advanced composites for the airframe structures of subsonic transports, short-haul aircraft, and rotorcraft. A typical early form of this was built using molded plywood. The use of high-speed, large-memory computers permits, in turn, more detailed internal structural loads analysis for each of the many loading conditions and design alternatives, with fine grid analysis determining more precise load paths, stress distributions, and load deflection characteristics for subsequent aeroelastic analysis. Adjustment normal to the surface of the position of skin surfaces, with rib height, prevents prestressing at assembly. The materials being developed for rotating structures in the compressor and turbine sections of the engine are very likely to be applicable to major cases as well. The viewpoint taken in this report is that as long as cure of one of the components being joined to another occurs simultaneously with the joining, the part is integrally stiffened. They must perform uncooled to the maximum extent possible to avoid performance losses associated with cooling large surface area liners. Reduction in size, weight, and cost of the components constituting these systems, through fiber optics, microprocessors, and smart material sensors and actuators, will allow the redundancies necessary for operations in keeping with commercial transport safety standards. Standardization of test techniques unique to composite construction should continue to be pursued. These advanced concepts will likely be revolutionary rather than evolutionary. This capability does not usually exist but would be a valuable asset in the development of advanced aircraft and engines. However, it is important to recognize certain unique aspects of commercial transport service operations and customer relations in dealing with the application of advanced materials and structures to that class of aircraft. U.S. industry must achieve these capabilities if it is to maintain a preeminent position in the world's commercial aircraft sales and operations. Hybrid composite construction does promise the means to do this, with bundles of highstrain-allowable fibers interspersed at intervals among the high-modulus fibers that provide the bulk of structural properties. B. Processing approaches could vary considerably, depending on the matrix, fiber, coating, and material form (such as weave) selected for the combustor. The current methods used by the airlines to repair damage to aircraft composite structure (secondary structure and primary flight controls) depend on the extent of damage, the time available to perform the repair, and the time until the next scheduled maintenance visit. structures capability to tolerate damage. First, fundamental test information is needed from which materials constitutive relationships can be developed that lead to reliable structural models of failure mechanisms. For example, when an airplane is on the ground, the landing gear struts are under a constant compression stress. Failures were instantaneous, as in the case of the fabric design. Both external and internal noises are matters of concern with unducted, so-called ultrahigh bypass fan propulsion systems. The structural research aimed at low-cost, low-weight composite structures, as discussed elsewhere in this report, will also benefit general aviation. Neither the higher dynamic pressures nor the higher temperatures associated with a speed of Mach 2.4 give rise to important design considerations that are new in the aircraft design field. It will probably be necessary for each specialist to become more conversant with the fields in which the others work and, from the earliest stages of design, for all of these specialists to work together in ways that are unprecedented in the aircraft industry. A paraglider is a lightweight, free-flying, foot-launched glider aircraft with no rigid primary structure. All these additions result in further increases in structure. This should include: a major role in establishing the data base that is required for realistic materials-and structures-related regulations; a significant increase in NASA's investment in the technology of shaping, forming, and fastening; and. Life prediction systems must include multiple failure mode assessments of complex, multiaxially. A very wide range of maximum temperatures and a wide range of specific strength requirements will be encountered, depending on which part of the nozzle is considered. Principal Structural Elements. Thus, it appears that with proper design, remarkable cost reductions can be realized in composite part production by introducing automation to replace hand lay-up. It is clear that this understanding must first be established before progress can be made in predicting the effects of damage on residual capability. Structural concepts that minimize part count and can be automated are essential to achieving an economically competitive airframe. Fibers can be entirely of one constituent material or used in combination. Technology for complete automation of the NDE process over a broad spectrum of applications should be a priority research goal. Each technology project should include explicit consideration, at the least, of how it can contribute to the technical basis for airworthiness regulations that will provide safety at minimum cost. through reduction of stress concentrations where there would otherwise be mechanical fasteners. However, for maximum benefit in case applications, the details of the design and the orientation of fibers may well require specialized development. D. Semi-monocoque structure… NASA's program of materials and structures research for the HSCT should give high priority to developing basic composite and metallic materials and design concepts for 225–375ºF operations that save significant weight relative to current metal structures, can be produced at costs acceptable for airframe applications, and have durability and toughness that resist degradation for 20 years of operation. Research is needed to increase the reliability and efficiency of NDE techniques, such as ultrasound and phased array imaging. Additional development is necessary to improve this further, with the attainable goal of completely eliminating in-service fatigue failures for these components. Although much of the basic technology is at hand to produce a commercial transport aircraft with a large percentage of composites in the primary structure, there are three significant areas of concern. Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. Both airframe and propulsion systems could benefit substantially from the high strength-to-weight potential of these more unusual alloy systems. Aspects contributing to durability are design characteristics leading to ease of maintenance, damage monitoring and inspection, repairability, and ultimately airframe retirement. 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