Fretter V; Graham A, 1962. In eastern North America from Nova Scotia to Virginia. The growth and distribution of Littorina littorea (L.) on a rocky shore in Wales. Live Marine Seafood and the Introduction of Non-native Species into California. Plant species diversity in a marine intertidal community: importance of herbivore food preference and algal competitive abilities. The tropical species belong in other genera of the same family American Naturalist 112(983): 23-39. [2] Contents. L. littorea should be considered as a potential threat to the establishment of sea vegetable aquaculture in Europe and North America because it consumes Porphyra spp. Barroso C M, Gonçalves C, Moreira M H, 2007. Summary Littorina littorea is a mollusc which is often distributed on rocky coasts, from the upper shore into the sub-littoral. The vertical distribution of certain intertidal animals. Maryland records of the gastropod, Littorina littorea, with a discussion of factors controlling its southern distribution. Carlson RL; Shulman MJ; Ellis JC, 2006. CAB Abstracts Data Mining., CABI, Undated. Historical Maine Periwinkle Landings. Pre-Columbian Littorina littorea in Nova Scotia. In the Pacific, L. squalida, which is considered to be L. littorea’s sister species (Reid, 1996), has a similar shell shape, but L. littorea’s shell is a little narrower and less incised. The largest is Littorina keenae, which ranges from Coos Bay, Oregon to Baja California. U.S. Physiological Zoology, 52:219-230. In: Plant-Animal interactions in the marine benthos [ed. Factors contributing to spatial heterogeneity in the abundance of the common periwinkle Littorina littorea (L.). Somewhat larger groups (13 collected from southern Alameda Island and at the bridge between Alameda and Bay Farm islands in 1968-70; 17 collected at Foster City in 2007-09) might be due to either baitworm seaweed or to an intentional release of snails sold as seafood. \Price, J. H.]. ISBN 90-5210-409-3. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. In sheltered conditions they can also be found in sandy or muddy habitats such as estuaries and mud-flats. Reid DG, 1996. Many colour morphs are known, but most shells are dark (brown to black), although when older and eroded, the shell is lighter. Systematics and evolution of Littorina. distribution of epibionts and their effects on the marine snail littorina littorea in northern new england by laura chelynne page b.s., wheaton college, il, 2003 Nonindigenous Aquatic Species in a United States Estuary: A Case Study of the Biological Invasions of the San Francisco Bay and Delta. Live. The common periwinkle (Littorina littorea), also known as the edible periwinkle, is a frequent sight along the shoreline in some areas. Occurrence of the digenean Cryptocotyle lingua in farmed Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus and periwinkles Littorina littorea sampled close to charr farms in northern Norway. balteata Dautzenberg & Durouchoux, 1912 Littorina littorea var. Canadian Naturalist, New Series, 6:369-416. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. A mature female Littorina littorea produces 10,000-100,000 eggs a year. Ecology, 88:853-863. Oxford, England: Clarendon Press, 1-33. No further records at this site. The apparent range of L. littorina shifted with climate change to areas northward (Siberia) or southward (Morocco) of the present native range, based upon fossils in deposits dated from periods known to represent colder or warmer climates than present. Malacolog, 2009. Department of Marine Resources. Reid discusses the taxonomic history involving synonymies and earlier spellings of L. littorea (e.g., Menke (1828) used Litorina litorea). Huxham M; Raffaelli D; Pike A, 1993. Reproduction . 1216-1228. Blakeslee AMH; Byers JE, 2008. Fretter V; Graham A, 1980. On all British coasts, Dutch coast and Helgoland, though rare or absent in Isles of Scilly and Channel Isles (Distr. Differential snail predation by an exotic crab and the geography of shell-claw covariance in the northwest Atlantic. Littorina littorea collected at Foster City, San Francisco Bay. Red-brown specimen of Littorina littorea at Foster City, San Francisco Bay. Verrill A E, 1880. Why are intertidal snails rare in the subtidal? (commonly known as Sea Lettuce); at Dumbarton Point, San Francisco Bay. Littorina littorea is a generalist herbivore, presumed to be unselective (Norton et al., 1990), feeding on macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta) and microalgae. Journal of Molluscan Studies, 7(Supplement):242-284. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 168(2):223-238. A review of the predators of Littorina, especially those of L. saxatilis (Olivi) [Gastropoda: Prosobranchia]. Dawson JW, 1872. Lyell (1835) applied the name L. littorea to fossil specimens of L. littorea, and most subsequent authors applied this name to fossil and modern representatives of L. littorea with the same concept of the species as we use today. Blakeslee A M H, Byers J E, 2008. Their functional anatomy and ecology. Datasheet report for Littorina littorea (common periwinkle) KEY : T = Text Section, M = Map, L = List Is Littorina littorea introduced or indigenous? Its range has slowly spread south, displacing some other small snails. Aperture very rounded; outer lip thin but lacking periostracal flap (cf. Maryland records of the gastropod, Littorina littorea, with a discussion of factors controlling its southern distribution. 2012. Paleoecology of marine Pleistocene Mollusca, Nova Scotia. Maine Sea Grant and the Department of Marine Resources (State of Maine) have prepared posters showing several species that would be invasive to the U.S. West Coast if established from Atlantic shores and distributed them to fishing shops, etc. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. The lowest annual value from 1989-2008 was in 2004 ($47,860). There are several Littorina species on the Pacific Coast, none of which grow as large as Littorina littorea. Solving cryptogenic histories using host and parasite molecular genetics: the resolution of Littorina littorea's North American origin. Note the eroded white apex. It is an exotic species from Europe that was introduced accidentally to Nova Scotia around 1857. The Biologist, 53:160-162. USA, San Francisco Estuary Partnership (2009), San Francisco Estuary Partnership, Evolution, 36:561-580. This is consistent with introduction of these populations by either the bait trade or the live seafood trade. In favorable habitats, it reaches densities of up to 200-800 individuals per square meter. Ecology 89: 1068-1078. L. littorea is also reported locally from bays (Trinidad Bay and San Francisco Bay, California; Newport Bay, Oregon; Puget Sound, Washington) on the Pacific coast of North America, although it has not become established there as an invasive species (Hanna, 1966; Carlton, 1969; Carlton, 2007; San Francisco Estuary Partnership, 2009; see Invasive Species Management). Cohen, A.N. Freezing in intertidal animals. The most obvious difference between the top and bottom of the transect was that at the top the stones were several layers deep with no areas of exposed sand, whereas at the seaward limit there was rarely more than one layer of stones but many areas of uncovered sand. obtusata was found at all the heights sampled; it reached peak numbers at mid shore on the alga Ascophyllum nodosum L. (Le Jol). Once a large breeding population is established, eradication is not feasible, and the snail can be expected to extend its range substantially. Arch, néerl. Brenchley GA; Carlton JT, 1983. Bourdeau PE; O'Connor JN, 2003. We think this is the likeliest explanation for the large populations (thousands of snails) found at Seal Beach in Southern California, at Dumbarton Point and possibly other sites in San Francisco Bay, and at Vancouver in British Columbia. Scientific Name:Littorina littorea Phylum: Mollusca. For a full review of littorinids in general, and a comprehensive discussion of past and current views on separating Littorina saxatilis into sub-species see Reid (1996). Reid (1996) remarks that a few authors, perhaps even Linneaus, included L. saxatilis within their concept of T. littoreus/L. 547-550. 320 pp. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(20):8239-8244. http://www.pnas.org/. Hawkins SJ; Hartnoll RG; Kain JM; Norton TA, 1992. Coyer, A.M.H. Stephenson TA; Stephenson A, 1954. Journal of Ecology, 42:14-45. The invasive species hypothesis is supported strongly by recent analyses (Blakeslee and Byers, 2008; Blakeslee et al., 2008; Brawley et al., 2009), but there are still some unresolved issues (see below) that deserve additional research. T These datasets may overlap. Invasion of coastal marine communities in North America: apparent patterns, processes and biases. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. This snail is the major herbivore of the intertidal zone within its invasive range in the northwestern Atlantic. Littorina littorea feeds on diatoms, Enteromorpha, Ulva and Porphyra. Carlton JT, 1969. Ecology, 89(2):439-451. http://www.esajournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-abstract&doi=10.1890%2F06-1036.1. Byers, W.T. Olsen 2009. Hydrobiologia, 440:119-128. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Wells H M, 1965. In: Marine Community Ecology [ed. The 2008 periwinkle fishery brought in 720,004 pounds valued at $601,410 (Department of Marine Resources. Lyell C, 1835. Biological Invasions, 10(1):1-6. http://www.springerlink.com/link.asp?id=103794, Daigle C; Dow J, 2000. Introduced mollusks of western North America. Reid, D.G. Pages 761-766 in: The Light and Smith Manual: Intertidal Invertebrates from Central California to Oregon, J.T. Littorina littorea var. Threat and conservation status. Littorina littorea var. Biol. The gradual dispersion of certain Mollusks in New England. Carlton (ed. In: Littorina removal, http://www.sfestuary.org/projects/detail.php?projectID=19#. It is also tolerant of brackish water. Since its arrival in North America, Littorina littorea has become the most abundant shallow-water herbivorous snail from Nova Scotia to Long Island Sound (Bertness 1984). Journal of Molluscan Studies, 72:149-156. 2009a; Department of Marine Resources State of Maine, Journal of Shellfish Research, 11:489-505. Littorina littorea. Buschbaum C, Buschbaum G, Schrey I, Thieltges D W, 2007. Bertness MD, 1984. It is also tolerant of brackish water. Environmental change and the evolutionary history of the periwinkle (Littorina littorea) in North America. It grows up to 21 mm high, and is similarly variable in shape, surface texture and color, but with a thicker shell, and is commonly found on protected rocky shores. Evolution, 55:2455-2469. Landings of the, A periwinkle fishery developed in some areas of Canada (e.g., Nova Scotia, New Brunswick) and New England (Maine) after the species attained high abundances in the twentieth century. Report of the geological structure and mineral resources of Prince Edward Island. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. The Ray Society, Andover, Hampshire, England. American Naturalist, 20:931-940. Littorina spp. L. littorea). Malacologia, 47(1/2):397 pp. Saranchova O L, Ushakova O O, Belyaeva D V, 2006. Top datasets. San Francisco Estuary Institute, Richmond CA. Clarke AH, 1971. Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, 1. Wood CL; Byers JE; Cottingham KL; Altman I; Donahue MJ; Blakeslee AMH, 2007. Kristoffersen R, 1991. Dataset Records; Danish benthic marine monitoring data … Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, 351:877-895. Center for Research on Aquatic Bioinvasions, Richmond, CA, and San Francisco Estuary Institute, Oakland, CA. Bulletin of the Essex Institute. Controls of spatial variation in the prevalence of trematode parasites infecting a marine snail. 1, 2). Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. complanata Harmer, 1920 Littorina littorea var. The puzzle has concerned which of these hypotheses is true: 1) L. littorea in North America is derived completely from invasive introduction(s) of snails from Europe (invasion hypothesis), 2) L. littorea is native to North America, but was rare until the 1800s (native species hypothesis), or 3) L. littorea is both introduced and native to North America. American Naturalist, 21:287-288. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 31:481-531. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 369:79-86. In Europe, the green crab Carcinus maenas is a major predator on L. littorea (e.g., Buschbaum et al., 2007), and this is also true of the crab’s invasive range in North America (Carlson et al., 2006; Ellis et al., 2007; Edgell and Rochette, 2008; Perez et al., 2009). Littorina littorea are oviparous and reproduce … From northern Spain to Great Britain, Scandinavia and the White Sea in Russia. The common periwinkle shell (Littorina littorea). It has been Biological Bulletin, 165:543-558. Specimens of Littorina littorea from unpolluted (Menai Bridge) and metal polluted (Restronguet Creek) sites have been analysed for ten metals in eight different tissues. 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Invertebrates to extreme changes in salinity 1 collected in 1942 ]: 1 collected in 1966 ]: 1 in... Live marine seafood and the most abundant on rocky coasts, from the coast...

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